Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2023
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated interim financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. GAAP for interim financial information, and pursuant to the requirements for reporting on Form 10-Q and Articles 6, 10 and 12 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, certain disclosures accompanying annual consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP are omitted. In the opinion of management, all adjustments consisting solely of normal recurring accruals considered necessary for the fair statement of consolidated financial statements for the interim periods have been included. The current period’s results of operations are not necessarily indicative of results that ultimately may be achieved for the full fiscal year. Therefore, the interim unaudited consolidated financial statements and notes should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2022. The year-end Consolidated Statements of Assets and Liabilities data was derived from audited financial statements but does not include all disclosures required by U.S. GAAP. The Company’s functional currency is U.S. dollars (“USD”) and these consolidated financial statements have been prepared in that currency.
As an investment company, the Company follows accounting and reporting guidance as set forth in Topic 946, Financial Services – Investment Companies (“ASC Topic 946”) of the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification, as amended (“ASC”). As provided under Regulation S-X and ASC Topic 946, the Company will not consolidate its investment in a portfolio company other than an investment company subsidiary or a controlled operating company whose business consists of providing services to the Company. Rather, an investment company’s interest in portfolio companies that are not investment companies should be measured at fair value in accordance with ASC Topic 946. The Adviser Subsidiary is not an
investment company as defined in ASC Topic 946 and further, the Adviser Subsidiary provides investment advisory services exclusively to the Adviser Funds which are owned by External Parties. As such pursuant to ASC Topic 946, the Adviser Subsidiary is accounted for as a portfolio investment of the Company held at fair value and is not consolidated.
Financial statements prepared on a U.S. GAAP basis require management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of income, expenses, gains and losses during the reported periods. Changes in the economic and regulatory environment, financial markets, the credit worthiness of our portfolio companies, other macro-economic developments (for example, global pandemics, natural disasters, terrorism, international conflicts and war), and any other parameters used in determining these estimates and assumptions could cause actual results to differ from these estimates and assumptions.
Principles of Consolidation
The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of the Company, its consolidated subsidiaries, and all Variable Interest Entities (“VIE”) of which the Company is the primary beneficiary. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
A VIE is an entity that either (i) has insufficient equity to permit the entity to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support or (ii) has equity investors who lack the characteristics of a controlling financial interest. The primary beneficiary of a VIE is the party with both the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and the obligation to absorb the losses or the right to receive benefits that could be significant to the VIE.
To assess whether the Company has the power to direct the activities of a VIE that most significantly impact its economic performance, the Company considers all the facts and circumstances including its role in establishing the VIE and its ongoing rights and responsibilities. This assessment includes identifying the activities that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and identifying which party, if any, has power over those activities. In general, the party that makes the most significant decisions affecting the VIE is determined to have the power to direct the activities of a VIE. To assess whether the Company has the obligation to absorb the losses or the right to receive benefits that could potentially be significant to the VIE, the Company considers all of its economic interests, including debt and equity interests, servicing rights and fee arrangements, and any other variable interests in the VIE. If the Company determines that it is the party with the power to make the most significant decisions affecting the VIE, and the Company has a potentially significant interest in the VIE, then it consolidates the VIE.
The Company performs periodic reassessments, usually quarterly, of whether it is the primary beneficiary of a VIE. The reassessment process considers whether the Company has acquired or divested the power to direct the activities of the VIE through changes in governing documents or other circumstances. The Company also reconsiders whether entities previously determined not to be VIEs have become VIEs, based on certain events, and therefore are subject to the VIE consolidation framework.
The Company's Consolidated Financial Statements included the accounts of the securitization trust, a VIE, formed in conjunction with the issuance of the 2031 Asset-Backed Notes (as defined in “Note 5 – Debt”). The assets of the Company's securitization VIE are restricted to be used to settle obligations of its consolidated securitization VIE, which are disclosed parenthetically on the Consolidated Statements of Assets and Liabilities. The liabilities are the only obligations of its consolidated securitization VIE, and the creditors (or beneficial interest holders) do not have recourse to the Company's general credit.
Fair Value Measurements
The Company follows guidance in ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurement (“ASC Topic 820”), where fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. ASC Topic 820 establishes a framework for measuring the fair value of assets and liabilities and outlines a three-tier hierarchy which maximizes the use of observable market data input and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs to establish a classification of fair value measurements. Inputs refer broadly to the assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, including assumptions about risk, such as the risk inherent in a particular valuation technique used to measure fair value using a pricing model and/or the risk inherent in the inputs for the valuation technique. Inputs may be observable or unobservable. Observable inputs reflect the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs reflect the Company’s own assumptions about the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on the information available. The inputs or methodology used for valuing assets or liabilities may not be an indication of the risks associated with investing in those assets or liabilities. ASC Topic 820 also requires disclosure for fair value measurements based on the level within the hierarchy of the information used in the valuation. ASC Topic 820 applies whenever other standards require (or permit) assets or liabilities to be measured at fair value.
The Company categorizes all investments recorded at fair value in accordance with ASC Topic 820 based upon the level of judgment associated with the inputs used to measure their fair value. Hierarchical levels, defined by ASC Topic 820 and directly related to the amount of subjectivity associated with the inputs to fair valuation of these assets and liabilities, are as follows:
Level 1—Inputs are unadjusted, quoted prices in active markets for identical assets at the measurement date. The types of assets carried at Level 1 fair value generally are equities listed in active markets.
Level 2—Inputs (other than quoted prices included in Level 1) are either directly or indirectly observable for the asset in connection with market data at the measurement date and for the extent of the instrument’s anticipated life. Fair valued assets that are generally included in this category are publicly held debt investments and warrants held in a public company.
Level 3—Inputs reflect management’s best estimate of what market participants would use in pricing the asset at the measurement date. It includes prices or valuations that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable. Generally, assets carried at fair value and included in this category are the debt investments and warrants and equities held in a private company.
Valuation of Investments
The most significant estimate inherent in the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements is the valuation of investments and the related amounts of unrealized appreciation and depreciation of investments recorded.
As of June 30, 2023, approximately 96.5% of the Company’s total assets represented investments in portfolio companies whose fair value is determined in good faith by the Company's Valuation Committee and approved by the Board. Fair Value, as defined in Section 2(a)(41) of the 1940 Act, is (i) the market price for those securities for which a market quotation is readily available and (ii) for all other securities and assets, fair value is as determined in good faith by the valuation designee of the Board. The Company’s investments are carried at fair value in accordance with the 1940 Act and ASC Topic 946 and measured in accordance with ASC Topic 820. The Company’s debt securities are primarily invested in venture capital-backed and institutional-backed companies in technology-related industries including technology, drug discovery and development, biotechnology, life sciences, healthcare, and sustainable and renewable technology at all stages of development. Given the nature of lending to these types of businesses, substantially all of the Company’s investments in these portfolio companies are considered Level 3 assets under ASC Topic 820 because there generally is no known or accessible market or market indexes for these investment securities to be traded or exchanged. As such, the Company values substantially all of its investments at fair value as determined in good faith pursuant to a consistent valuation policy established by the Board in accordance with the provisions of ASC Topic 820 and the 1940 Act. Due to the inherent uncertainty in determining the fair value of investments that do not have a readily available market value, the fair value of the Company’s investments determined in good faith by the Company's Valuation Committee and approved by the Board may differ significantly from the value that would have been used had a readily available market existed for such investments, and the differences could be material.
In accordance with procedures established by its Board, the Company values investments on a quarterly basis following a multistep valuation process. Pursuant to the amended SEC Rule 2a-5 of the 1940 Act, the Board has designated the Company’s Valuation Committee as the “valuation designee”. The quarterly Board approved multi-step valuation process is described below:
The Company’s quarterly valuation process begins with each portfolio company being initially valued by the investment professionals responsible for the portfolio investment;
Preliminary valuation conclusions and business-based assumptions, along with any applicable fair value marks provided by an independent firm, are reviewed with the Company’s investment committee and certain member(s) of credit group as necessary;
The Valuation Committee reviews the preliminary valuations recommended by the investment committee and certain member(s) of the credit group of each investment in the portfolio and determines the fair value of each investment in the Company’s portfolio in good faith and recommends the valuation determinations to the Audit Committee of the Board;
The Audit Committee of the Board provides oversight of the quarterly valuation process in accordance with Rule 2a-5, which includes a review of the quarterly reports prepared by the Valuation Committee, reviews the fair valuation determinations made by the Valuation Committee, and approves such valuations for inclusion in public reporting and disclosures, as appropriate; and
The Board, upon the recommendation of the Audit Committee, discusses valuations and approves the fair value of each investment in the Company’s portfolio.
Investments purchased within the preceding two calendar quarters before the valuation date and debt investments with remaining maturities within 12 months or less may each be valued at cost with interest accrued or discount accreted/premium amortized to the date of maturity, unless such valuation, in the judgment of the Company, does not represent fair value. In this case such investments shall be valued at fair value as determined in good faith by the Valuation Committee and approved by the Board. Investments that are not publicly traded or whose market quotations are not readily available are valued at fair value as determined in good faith by the Valuation Committee and approved by the Board.
As part of the overall process noted above, the Company engages one or more independent valuation firm(s) to provide management with assistance in determining the fair value of selected portfolio investments each quarter. In selecting which portfolio investments to engage an independent valuation firm, the Company considers a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the potential for material fluctuations in valuation results, size, credit quality, and the time lapse since the last valuation of the portfolio investment by an independent valuation firm. The scope of services rendered by the independent valuation firm is at the discretion of the Valuation Committee and subject to approval of the Board, and the Company may engage an independent valuation firm to value all or some of our portfolio investments. In determining the fair value of a portfolio investment in good faith, the Company recognizes these determinations are made using the best available information that is knowable or reasonably knowable. In addition, changes in the market environment, portfolio company performance and other events that may occur over the duration of the investments may cause the gains or losses ultimately realized on these investments to be materially different than the valuations currently assigned. The change in fair value of each individual investment is recorded as an adjustment to the investment's fair value and the change is reflected in unrealized appreciation or depreciation.
The Company’s debt securities are primarily invested in venture capital-backed and institutional-backed companies in technology-related industries including technology, drug discovery and development, biotechnology, life sciences, healthcare, and sustainable and renewable technology at all stages of development. Given the nature of lending to these types of businesses, substantially all of the Company’s investments in these portfolio companies are considered Level 3 assets under ASC Topic 820 because there generally is no known or accessible market or market indexes for debt instruments for these investment securities to be traded or exchanged. The Company may, from time to time, invest in public debt of companies that meet the Company’s investment objectives, and to the extent market quotations or other pricing indicators (i.e. broker quotes) are available, these investments are considered Level 1 or 2 assets in line with ASC Topic 820.
In making a good faith determination of the value of the Company’s investments, the Company generally starts with the cost basis of the investment, which includes the value attributed to the original issue discount (“OID”), if any, and payment-in-kind (“PIK”) interest or other receivables which have been accrued as earned. The Company then applies the valuation methods as set forth below.
The Company assumes the sale of each debt security in a hypothetical market to a hypothetical market participant where buyers and sellers are willing participants. The hypothetical market does not include scenarios where the underlying security was simply repaid or extinguished, but includes an exit concept. The Company determines the yield at inception for each debt investment. The Company then uses senior secured, leveraged loan yields provided by third party providers to calibrate the change in market yields between inception of the debt investment and the measurement date. Industry specific indices and other relevant market data are used to benchmark and assess market-based movements for reasonableness. As part of determining the fair value, the Company also evaluates the collateral for recoverability of the debt investments. The Company considers each portfolio company’s credit rating, security liens and other characteristics of the investment to adjust the baseline yield to derive a credit adjusted hypothetical yield for each investment as of the measurement date. The anticipated future cash flows from each investment are then discounted at the hypothetical yield to estimate each investment’s fair value as of the measurement date. The Company’s process includes an analysis of, among other things, the underlying investment performance, the current portfolio company’s financial condition and market changing events that impact valuation, estimated remaining life, current market yield and interest rate spreads of similar securities as of the measurement date.
The Company values debt securities that are traded on a public exchange at the prevailing market price as of the valuation date. For syndicated debt investments, for which sufficient market data is available and liquidity, the Company values debt securities using broker quotes and bond indices amongst other factors. If there is a significant deterioration of the credit quality of a debt investment, the Company may consider other factors to estimate fair value, including the proceeds that would be received in a liquidation analysis.
The Company records unrealized depreciation on investments when it believes that an investment has decreased in value, including where collection of a debt investment is doubtful or, if under the in-exchange premise, when the value of a debt investment is less than amortized cost of the investment. Conversely, where appropriate, the Company records unrealized appreciation if it believes that the underlying portfolio company has appreciated in value and, therefore, that its investment has also appreciated in value or, if under the in-exchange premise, the value of a debt investment is greater than amortized cost.
When originating a debt instrument, the Company generally receives warrants or other equity securities from the borrower. The Company determines the cost basis of the warrants or other equity securities received based upon their respective fair values on the date of receipt in proportion to the total fair value of the debt and warrants or other equity securities received. Any resulting discount on the debt investments from recordation of the warrant or other equity instruments is accreted into interest income over the life of the debt investment.
Equity Securities and Warrants
Securities that are traded in the over-the-counter markets or on a stock exchange will be valued at the prevailing bid price at period end. The Company has a limited amount of equity securities in public companies. In accordance with the 1940 Act, unrestricted
publicly traded securities for which market quotations are readily available are valued at the closing market quote on the measurement date.
At each reporting date, privately held warrant and equity securities are valued based on an analysis of various factors including, but not limited to, the portfolio company’s operating performance and financial condition, general market conditions, price to enterprise value or price to equity ratios, discounted cash flow, valuation comparisons to comparable public companies or other industry benchmarks. When an external event occurs, such as a purchase transaction, public offering, or subsequent equity sale, the pricing indicated by that external event is utilized to corroborate the Company’s valuation of the warrant and equity securities. The Company periodically reviews the valuation of its portfolio companies that have not been involved in a qualifying external event to determine if the enterprise value of the portfolio company may have increased or decreased since the last valuation measurement date. Absent a qualifying external event, the Company estimates the fair value of warrants using a Black Scholes OPM. For certain privately held equity securities, the income approach is used, in which the Company converts future amounts (for example, cash flows or earnings) to a net present value. The measurement is based on the value indicated by current market expectations about those future amounts. In following these approaches, the types of factors that the Company may take into account include, as relevant: applicable market yields and multiples, the portfolio company’s capital structure, the nature and realizable value of any collateral, the portfolio company’s ability to make payments, its earnings and discounted cash flows, and enterprise value among other factors.
Investment Funds & Vehicles
The Company applies the practical expedient provided by the ASC Topic 820 relating to investments in certain entities that calculate net asset value (“NAV”) per share (or its equivalent). ASC Topic 820 permits an entity holding investments in certain entities that either are investment companies, or have attributes similar to an investment company, and calculate NAV per share or its equivalent for which the fair value is not readily determinable, to measure the fair value of such investments on the basis of that NAV per share, or its equivalent, without adjustment. Investments which are valued using NAV per share as a practical expedient are not categorized within the fair value hierarchy as per ASC Topic 820.
The Company's derivative instruments include foreign currency forward contracts. The Company recognizes all derivative instruments as assets or liabilities at fair value in its consolidated financial statements. Derivative contracts entered into by the Company are not designated as hedging instruments, and as a result, the Company presents changes in fair value through net change in unrealized appreciation (depreciation) on non-control/non-affiliate investments in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Realized gains and losses of the derivative instruments are included in net realized gains (losses) on non-control/non-affiliate investments in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Restricted Cash
Cash and cash equivalents consist solely of funds deposited with financial institutions and short-term liquid investments in money market deposit accounts. Cash and cash equivalents are carried at cost, which approximates fair value. As of June 30, 2023, the Company held $2,258 thousand (Cost basis $2,204 thousand) of foreign cash. As of December 31, 2022, the Company held $1,178 thousand (Cost basis $1,168 thousand) of foreign cash. Restricted cash includes amounts that are held as collateral securing certain of the Company’s financing transactions, including amounts held in a securitization trust by trustees related to its 2031 Asset-Backed Notes (refer to “Note 5 – Debt”).
Other assets generally consist of prepaid expenses, debt issuance costs on our Credit Facilities net of accumulated amortization, fixed assets net of accumulated depreciation, deferred revenues and deposits and other assets, including escrow and other investment related receivables.
Escrow receivables are collected in accordance with the terms and conditions of the escrow agreement. Escrow balances are typically distributed over a period greater than one year and may accrue interest during the escrow period. Escrow balances are measured for collectability on at least a quarterly basis and fair value is determined based on the amount of the estimated recoverable balances and the contractual maturity date.
The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Operating leases are included in right-of-use (“ROU”) assets, and operating lease liability obligations in our Consolidated Statements of Assets and Liabilities. The Company recognizes a ROU asset and an operating lease liability for all leases, with the exception of short-term leases which have a term of 12 months or less. ROU assets represent the right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and operating lease liability obligations represent the obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at lease commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. The Company has lease agreements with lease and non-lease components and has separated these components when determining the ROU assets and the related lease liabilities. As most of the Company’s
leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company estimated its incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the lease commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. The Company uses the implicit rate when readily determinable. The ROU asset also includes any lease payments made and excludes lease incentives and lease direct costs. The Company’s lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise that option. Lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. See “Note 11 – Commitments and Contingencies”.
Investment Income Recognition
The Company’s investment portfolio generates interest, fee, and dividend income. The Company records interest income on an accrual basis, recognizing income as earned in accordance with the contractual terms of the loan agreement, to the extent that such amounts are expected to be collected. The Company’s Structured Debt investments may generate OID. The OID received upfront typically represents the value of detachable equity, warrants, or another asset obtained in conjunction with the acquisition of debt securities. The OID is accreted into interest income over the term of the loan as a yield enhancement following the effective interest method. Additionally, certain debt investments in the Company’s portfolio earn PIK interest. The Company records PIK interest in accordance with the contractual terms of the loan agreement, to the extent that such amounts are expected to be collected. Contractual PIK interest represents contractually deferred interest that is added to the loan balance as principal and is generally due at the end of the loan term.
The Company’s loan origination activities generate fee income, which is generally collected in advance and includes loan commitment, facility fees for due diligence and structuring, as well as fees for transaction services and management services rendered by the Company to portfolio companies and other third parties. Loan commitment and facility fees are capitalized and then amortized into income over the contractual life of the loan using the effective interest method. One-off fees for transaction and management services are generally recognized as income in the period when the services are rendered. The Company may also earn loan exit fees, which are contractual fees that are generally received upon the earlier of maturity or prepayment. The Company accretes loan exit fees into interest income following the effective interest method, recognizing income as earned in accordance with the contractual terms of the loan agreement, to the extent that such amounts are expected to be collected.
From time to time, additional fees may be earned by the Company relating to specific loan modifications, prepayments, or other one-off events. These non-recurring fees are either amortized into fee income over the remaining term of the loan commencing in the quarter for loan modifications, or recognized currently as one-time fee income for items such as prepayment penalties, fees related to select covenant default waiver fees, and acceleration of previously deferred loan fees and OID related to early loan pay-off or material modification of the specific debt outstanding.
Debt investments are placed on non-accrual status when it is probable that principal, interest or fees will not be collected according to contractual terms. When a debt investment is placed on non-accrual status, the Company ceases to recognize interest and fee income until the portfolio company has paid all principal and interest due or demonstrated the ability to repay its current and future contractual obligations to the Company. The Company may determine to continue to accrue interest on a loan where the investment has sufficient collateral value to collect all of the contractual amount due and is in the process of collection. Interest collected on non-accrual investments are generally applied to principal.
Realized Gains or Losses
Realized gains or losses are measured by the difference between the net proceeds from the sale or other realization event and the cost basis of the investment using the specific identification method without regard to unrealized appreciation or depreciation previously recognized, and includes investments charged off during the period, net of recoveries.
The Company follows the guidance in ASC Topic 860, Transfers and Servicing (“ASC Topic 860”), when accounting for participation and other partial loan sales. Certain loan sales do not qualify for sale accounting under ASC Topic 860 because these sales do not meet the definition of a “participating interest”, as defined in the guidance, in order for sale accounting treatment to be allowed. Participations or other partial loan sales which do not meet the definition of a participating interest, or which are not eligible for sale accounting treatment remain as an investment on the consolidated balance sheet as required under U.S. GAAP and the proceeds are recorded as a secured borrowing. Secured borrowings are carried at fair value.
Equity Offering Expenses
The Company’s offering expenses are charged against the proceeds from equity offerings when received as a reduction of capital upon completion of an offering of registered securities.
The debt of the Company is carried at amortized cost which is comprised of the principal amount borrowed net of any unamortized discount and debt issuance costs. Discounts and issuance costs are accreted to interest expense and loan fees, respectively, using the straight-line method, which closely approximates the effective yield method, over the remaining life of the underlying debt obligations (see “Note 5 – Debt”). Accrued but unpaid interest is included within Accounts payable and accrued liabilities on the Consolidated Statements of Assets and Liabilities. In the event that the debt is extinguished, either partially or in full, before maturity, the Company recognizes the gain or loss in the Consolidated Statements of Operations within net realized gains (losses) as a “Loss on extinguishment of debt”.
Debt Issuance Costs
Debt issuance costs are fees and other direct incremental costs incurred by the Company in obtaining debt financing and are recognized as prepaid expenses and amortized over the life of the related debt instrument using the effective yield method or the straight-line method, which closely approximates the effective yield method. In accordance with ASC Subtopic 835-30, Interest – Imputation of Interest, debt issuance costs are presented as a reduction to the associated liability balance on the Consolidated Statements of Assets and Liabilities, except for debt issuance costs associated with line-of-credit arrangements.
The Company has issued and may, from time to time, issue stock options, restricted stock, and other stock-based compensation awards to employees and directors. Management follows the guidance set forth under ASC Topic 718, to account for stock-based compensation awards granted. Under ASC Topic 718, compensation expense associated with stock-based compensation is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and is recognized over the vesting period. Determining the appropriate fair value model and calculating the fair value of stock-based awards at the grant date requires judgment. This includes certain assumptions such as stock price volatility, forfeiture rate, expected outcome probability, and expected option life, as applicable to each award. In accordance with ASC Topic 480, certain stock awards are classified as a liability. The compensation expense associated with these awards is recognized in the same manner as all other stock-based compensation. The award liability is recorded as deferred compensation and included in Accounts payable and accrued liabilities.
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with the provisions of ASC Topic 740 Income Taxes, under which income taxes are provided for amounts currently payable and for amounts deferred based upon the estimated future tax effects of differences between the financial statements and tax basis of assets and liabilities given the provisions of the enacted tax law. Valuation allowances may be used to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount likely to be realized. The Company intends to timely distribute to its stockholders substantially all of its annual taxable income for each year, except that it may retain certain net capital gains for reinvestment and, depending upon the level of taxable income earned in a year, it may choose to carry forward taxable income for distribution in the following year and pay any applicable U.S. federal excise tax.
The Company has elected to be treated as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code. As such, the Company generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the portion of taxable income (including gains) distributed as dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes to stockholders. Taxable income includes the Company’s taxable interest, dividend and fee income, reduced by certain deductions, as well as taxable net realized securities gains.
Because taxable income as determined in accordance with U.S. federal tax regulations differ from U.S. GAAP, taxable income generally differs from net income for financial reporting purposes due to temporary and permanent differences in the recognition of income and expenses, and generally excludes net unrealized appreciation or depreciation, as such gains or losses are not included in taxable income until they are realized. Permanent differences are reclassified among capital accounts in the financial statements to reflect their appropriate tax character. Permanent differences may also result from the change in the classification of certain items, such as the treatment of short-term gains as ordinary income for tax purposes. Temporary differences arise when certain items of income, expense, gains or losses are recognized at some time in the future for tax or U.S. GAAP purposes.
As a RIC, the Company will be subject to a 4% non-deductible U.S. federal excise tax on certain undistributed income unless the Company makes distributions treated as dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes in a timely manner to its stockholders in respect of each calendar year of an amount at least equal to the Excise Tax Avoidance Requirement. The Company will not be subject to this excise tax on any amount on which the Company incurred U.S. federal income tax (such as the tax imposed on a RIC’s retained net capital gains).
Depending on the level of taxable income earned in a taxable year, the Company may choose to carry over taxable income in excess of current taxable year distributions treated as dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes from such taxable income into the next taxable year and incur a 4% excise tax on such taxable income, as required. The maximum amount of excess taxable income that may be carried over for distribution in the next taxable year under the Code is the total amount of distributions treated as dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes paid in the following taxable year, subject to certain declaration and payment guidelines. To the extent the Company chooses to carry over taxable income into the next taxable year, distributions declared and paid
by the Company in a taxable year may differ from the Company’s taxable income for that taxable year as such distributions may include the distribution of current taxable year taxable income, the distribution of prior taxable year taxable income carried over into and distributed in the current taxable year, or return of capital.
Earnings Per Share (“EPS”)
Basic EPS is calculated by dividing net earnings applicable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding. Common shares outstanding includes common stock and restricted stock for which no future service is required as a condition to the delivery of the underlying common stock. Diluted EPS includes the determinants of basic EPS and, in addition, reflects the dilutive effect of the common stock deliverable pursuant to stock options and to restricted stock for which future service is required as a condition to the delivery of the underlying common stock. In accordance with ASC 260-10-45-60A, the Company uses the two-class method in the computation of basic EPS and diluted EPS, if applicable.
The Company reports all changes in comprehensive income in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. The Company did not have other comprehensive income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 or 2022. The Company’s comprehensive income is equal to its net increase in net assets resulting from operations.
Distributions to common stockholders are approved by the Board on a quarterly basis and the distribution payable is recorded on the ex-dividend date. The Company maintains an “opt out” dividend reinvestment plan that provides for reinvestment of the Company’s distribution on behalf of the Company’s stockholders, unless a stockholder elects to receive cash. As a result, if the Company declares a distribution, cash distributions will be automatically reinvested in additional shares of its common stock unless the stockholder specifically “opts out” of the dividend reinvestment plan and chooses to receive cash distributions.
The Company lends to and invests in portfolio companies in various technology-related industries including technology, drug discovery and development, biotechnology, life sciences, healthcare, and sustainable and renewable technology. The Company separately evaluates the performance of each of its lending and investment relationships. However, because each of these loan and investment relationships has similar business and economic characteristics, they have been aggregated into a single reportable segment.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In June 2022, the FASB issued ASU 2022-03, “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820) Fair Value Measurement of Equity Securities Subject to Contractual Sale Restrictions”, which was issued to (1) clarify the guidance in Topic 820, Fair Value Measurement, when measuring the fair value of an equity security subject to contractual restrictions that prohibit the sale of an equity security, (2) to amend a related illustrative example, and (3) to introduce new disclosure requirements for equity securities subject to contractual sale restrictions that are measured at fair value in accordance with Topic 820. The new guidance is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2023. The Company does not anticipate the new standard will have a material impact to the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.